Presentation Details

The Fourth International Conference on Knowledge, Culture and Change in Organisations

Culture of Corruption: Poland's Medical Sector

Bozena Leven.

This study focuses on the effects of Poland's reforms in the period 1990-2004 on corruption in health care system. In the last 11 years Poland has transformed its economy drastically, introducing markets into almost every aspect of its economy. In this study we consider how different reforms changed incentives and mechanisms facilitating corruption in medical care sector. The hypothesis is that corruption in Poland's medical sector has worsened since the onset of the marketization reforms. We test this hypothesis primary by analyzing changes in incentives for corruption and number of mechanisms facilitating it. In additions, where available, quantitative data are provided, though we recognize that numerical estimates of corruption are subject to a substantial error. We focus on three major forms of corruption: patients' payments securing medical treatment or improving anticipated quality, payments from industry (mostly pharmaceutical and medical equipment producers), and use by physicians' of free public facilities for private patients.


Bozena Leven  (United States)
The College of New Jersey
School of Business

Bozena Leven graduated from the Central School of Planning and Statistics, Warsaw, Poland with an M.A. in Economics (specializing in International Trade)and was awarded a Ph.D. in Economics from Cornell University. Her primary areas of study included Comparative Economic Systems, International Economics and Economic Development. She has interspersed her academic duties with consulting stints at the Ford Foundation, International Affairs division assisting in their Soviet-East European program, the United Nations, office of the Under-Secretary-General, Department for Economic and Social Information and Policy Analysis, the William Davidson Institute, University of Michigan and the World Bank. Her publications and research focus on two areas: financial restructuring of Eastern and Central Europe and the welfare effects of recent marketization reforms in that region.

  • Corruption
  • Polish Health Care Sector

(30 min Conference Paper, English)